Sunday, June 7, 2009


Digestive System In Animals

Structure digestion equipment vary in different types of animals, depending on the high-low level of organization in animal cells and the type of food. invertebrates on animal tool digestion of food in general is still simple, done in fagositosis and intrasel, while the animal-animal vertebrata digestion have the perfect tool to be carried out ekstrasel.
1. In the digestive system invertebrates Animals

Digestive system in animals is generally done in invertebrates intrasel, such as protozoa, porifera, and Coelenterata.

Digestion is done in the form of special equipment vakuola food, and koanosit cell cavity gastrovaskuler. Furthermore, the parasitic worms such as tapeworm, a tool pencernaannya rudimentary and does not have a mouth and anus. digestion is done in a way directly through the skin absorbs.

a. In the digestive system earthworm Food

cacingyang issued by the sap ekstrasel digestion. Food earthworms form leaves and organic waste that is obsolete. Earthworms can mencerna organic compound is a simple molecule that can be absorbed by the body. The remaining food is removed through digestion anus.

b. In the digestive system Insect

As the earthworms, insects have a digestive system that is perfect, from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine anus.Pencernaan to be conducted on the insect ekstrasel.

2. In the digestive system Hewan vertebrata

Digestive organs in animals include vertebrata alimentary tract (tractus digestivus) and digestive gland (glandula digestoria

a. In the digestive system fish

Alimentary tract in the fish's mouth cavity starts (cavum oris). In the mouth there is a cavity in a tooth-teeth small, conical teeth on the bottom of the tongue and mouth on the bottom that can not produce many digerakan and mucus, but it does not produce saliva (enzyme). Food from the mouth cavity into the esophagus through which there is faring in the area around the gill.

Esofagus conical, short, there is behind the gill, and when foods are not lumennya narrow. Of the esophagus push food into the stomach, the stomach expand its public, does not clearly limit the intestine. In some species of fish, there is a protrusion impasse to expand the field of food absorption.

From the stomach, the food into the intestine in the form of pipe length and sinuous same magnitude. The empty intestine anus.

Digestive gland in the fish, including heart and pancreas. Exercise is a gland the size of besal, brownish red, located on the front of the body cavity and girth intestine, does not strictly form, divided into right lobus and lobus left, and the direction to go back. Function of the liver bile stored in the gall bladder membanfu process for digestion of fat. Gall bladder rounded shape, color kehijauary located on the right side of the heart, and channel on the empty stomach. Gall bladder serves to store bile to the intestine and distributed as needed. Pancreas is an organ that mikroskopik sized so difficult to recognize, the pancreas, among others, the enzyme - enzyme digestion and the hormone insulin.

b. In the digestive system Amphibian

Digestive system in amphibious food, almost the same with fish, including alimentary tract and digestive gland. one animal

amphibi is a frog. Food animals such as frogs, small animals (insects). The succession in the alimentary tract includes the frog:

1. mouth cavity: there is a cone-shaped teeth to hold the prey and the tongue to capture prey,

2. esofagus; a short channel,

3. ventrikulus (stomach), forming a pouch when filled food
become wide. Frog stomach can be divided into 2, namely the esofagus entrance and exit holes to the intestine,

4. intestinum (gut) can be distinguished on the small intestine and bowel thick. Include the small intestine: duodenum. jejenum, and ileum, but not yet clear boundaries.

5. Ended in the thick intestine rektum and the kloata, and

6. kloaka: an estuary along the channel between the digestion of food, the channel reproduction, and urine.

On the amphibian digestive gland, consisting of the liver and pancreas. Brownish red heart, made up of the right lobus divided into two lobulus. Exercise work out bile stored in the gall bladder of color greenness. pancreas colored
Colors, attached between the stomach and intestine twelve fingers (duadenum). functioning pancreas produces the hormone and enzyme in the duodenum empty.

c. In the digestive system Reptiles

As the fish and amphibian systems, digestion of food in the alimentary tract include reptiles and digestive gland. Reptiles generally karnivora (meat eater). The succession in the alimentary tract reptiles include:

1) mouth cavity: the mouth cavity is supported by the top and bottom of the jaw, each has a row of conical teeth, dental stick to the gum and a little curve to the mouth cavity. At the mouth cavity, a tongue attached to the bone with the tip of the tongue forked,

2) esofagus (throat),

3) ventrikulus (stomach),

4) intestinum: consists of the small intestine and the bowel is empty in the thick anus.
Digestive gland in reptiles include the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. In the heart has two reptilia lobus (gelambirf and color redness. Gall bladder is located on the fringe of the right heart. Pancreas is located between the stomach and duodenum, flat-shaped straw.

d. In the digestive system Birds

Digestive organs in birds divided on the alimentary tract and digestive gland. Food birds vary seeds, small animals, and fruits. Alimentary tract in birds consists of:

1) part: the modification of the teeth,

2) oral cavity: consisting of the maxilla, which is a link between mouth cavity and the horn,

3) faring: a short channel, esofagus: there is a widening in birds in this section called the cache, as a storage place for food that can be filled quickly,

4) side consists of:

- Proventrikulus (stomach gland): a lot of the enzyme digestion, ototnya thin walls.

- Ventrikulus (pengunyah stomach / gizzard): ototnya thick wall. In the bird

eater there are grains of sand and gravel is swallowed along with food vang useful to help digestion and referred to as the "hen's teeth",

5) intestinum: consists of the small intestine and the bowel is empty in the thick kloaka. Small intestine in birds consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Digestive gland birds include: liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. In the dove found no gall bladder.

e. Animals on the digestive system Mamah Biak (Ruminansia)
Animal-animal herbivora (grass-eater), such as sheep, cattle, buffalo, called the ruminant animals (ruminansia). Digestive system food animals in this long and more complex. Food is a lot of animals that are difficult to contain cellulose digested by animals, in general, so that the system pencernaannya digestive system is different from the other animals.

Differences in food digestion system ruminansia animals, appear on the structure of teeth, the teeth there is a back (molar) the great works to digest the difficult rerumputan digested. In addition, the animal ruminansia there are bound to be modified into 4 sections, namely: rumen (stomach big), retikulum (stomach nets), omasum (book of stomach), and the abomasum (stomach acid).
With the size of which varies according to age and food alamiahnya. Rumen capacity 80%, retlkulum 5%, omasum 7-8%, and abomasums 7-8 '/ o.Pembagian seen from this form of gentingan at the time of muscle spingter berkontraksi. Abomasum is indeed on the side of animal ruminansia.

Herbivora animals, such as horses, rabbits, and Marmut not have any structure in the stomach as well as cattle for cellulose fermentation. The process of fermentation or decomposition made by the bacteria occurred in sekum the banvak contain bacteria. the fermentation process is not as effective as the sekum fermentation going dilambung. As a result, dirt horse, rabbit, and more rough as Marmut cellulose digestion occurred only once, namely on sekum. While in the cow, the process of digestion occurs twice, namely in the stomach and both sekum made by certain bacteria and protozoa.

The existence of bacteria in the stomach selulotik ruminant animals is a form of symbiosis that can produce mutualisme B vitamins and amino acids. In addition, these bacteria may produce gas metan (CH4), which can be used in the making of biogas as an energy source altematif.

Food in the digestive system earthworm is perfect. Earthworms have the tools digestion from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and anus. The process is assisted by enzyme digestion - enzyme